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St Paul's Cathedral (part two)
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The great pulpit on the south-east of the crossing was designed by Lord Mottistone in 1960: an exuberant essay in the Wren style, but with a much larger and heavier tester than we see in the City's parish churches. The traditional eagle lectern to the west of the crossing is by Jacob Sutton, 1720. The four statues in the angles between the aisles form a set agreed by the Dean and Chapter in the 1790s. John Flaxman executed the statue of Dr Johnson in the north-east corner; the rest (of John Howard, Sir William Jones and Sir Joshua Reynolds, in clockwise order) were by John Bacon the elder. Two of the finest craftsmen associated with Wren carried out distinguished works in the choir and its aisles: Jean Tijou, who designed the gates and screens at the west ends of the choir aisles, and north and south of the sanctuary; and Grinling Gibbons, who was responsible for the choir-stalls. The large oval font made of Carrara marble by Francis Bird, 1727, stands at the west end of the nave. Nearby there may be seen The Light of the World, which was the third version of this well-known painting by William Holman Hunt, dating from about 1900.

St Paul's Cathedral (part two)

The Inner dome was painted by Sir James Thornhill in the early 18th century to depict eight scenes from St Paul's life, set under arches.



The paintings and mosaics of the inner dome and the vaults of the choir and its aisles were not completed until the early 1900s. Sir James Thornhill had painted the inner dome in monochrome by 1720, representing eight scenes from the life of St Paul, set under an arcade. Dean Milman began further decoration in the mid-19th century. Alfred Stevens designed four Prophets to be executed in mosaic in the dome's west spandrels, and G. F. Watts was responsible for designing the Evangelists for the east side. The lion's share of decoration, however, fell to Sir William Richmond, who carried out all the work in the choir and its aisles in 1891-1907. The theme of the choir mosaics is taken from the Benedicite and leads towards the figure of Christ the King in the centre of the apse's vault. The stained-glass windows of the apse, by Brian Thomas, about 1960, are mainly blue and gold, and fit in very well with the ensemble of the choir. The fareast end was arranged as an American memorial chapel after the war. The Great Fire destroyed the monuments of Old St Paul's, except for the celebrated memorial to John Donne (died 1631), Dean and poet, which is placed in the south choir aisle.

St Paul's Cathedral (part two)

Nelson's tomb in the crypt stands in the place of honour under the dome. The sarcophagus was originally intended for Cardinal Wolsey in the 16th century.


This very moving sculpture by Nicholas Stone shows Donne in his burial shroud. Until the end of the 18th century, Wren's St Paul's possessed no grand monuments. Subsequently, over a period of about 100 years, no fewer than 33 monuments were erected by parliamentary vote. The majority were of heroes of the Napoleonic Wars. Viscount Nelson has a substantial memorial in the south transept, by John Flaxman. A convincing statue is accompanied by an anchor, a lion and Britannia, who is telling two boys of Nelson's victories. Most of the Napoleonic monuments follow the same pattern, with anchors or cannons, lions, figures of history or victory, and a eulogy that centres on the subject's battles. With Nelson in the south transept are Admiral Earl Howe (by Flaxman); General Lord Heathfield (by John Charles Felix Rossi); and Admiral Lord Collingwood (by Richard Westmacott). Sir Thomas Picton, who was killed at Waterloo, is in the north transept; and Viscount Duncan, the victor of Camperdown, and Earl St Vincent, the victor of the Battle of Cape St Vincent, are both in the crypt. The largest Napoleonic monument, to the Duke of Wellington, was not ready until 1877. Alfred Stevens was the sculptor. He was commissioned in 1856 and was sacked in 1870; his chief government tormentor ended up as a representation of Falsehood. The work is an architectural one and harks back to the big canopied memorials of Elizabethan and Jacobean times in Westminster Abbey.

St Paul's Cathedral (part two)

Britannia is telling two boys of Nelson's victories and points to John Flaxman's fine statue.


Nelson's tomb lies in the crypt directly under the dome: the greatest place of honour. He was accorded the black marble sarcophagus that Benedetto da Rovezzano had made in the 1520s for Cardinal Wolsey. The tomb is surrounded by memorials to later admirals. In a similar fashion, Wellington's plain granite tomb under the west part of the choir is surrounded by 20th-century soldiers' memorials. Wren's tomb is in the south-east corner. Victorian military heroes are commemorated on the north side of the nave. Kitchener's marble effigy in All Souls' chapel, by Sir William Reid Dick, 1925, is particularly fine, especially as it is part of a memorial chapel of the same era (by Detmar Blow and Sir Mervyn Macartney). In the centre at the west end, a tablet in the floor recalls the St Paul's Watch, whose members helped to save the cathedral during the Second World War.

St Paul's Cathedral (part two)

The Duke of Wellington's effigy by Alfred Stevens lies under a substantial Classical canopy.


The cathedral was at a low ebb for much of the 19th century. Stirrings of reform came under Dean Milman (1849-68), but it was Robert Gregory (Canon from 1868, Dean 1891-1911) who was the most celebrated reformer. In his time, St Paul's was hugely raised in influence and esteem. Great state occasions such as the thanksgiving in 1872 for the Prince of Wales's recovery from illness were subsequently to be held there. In more recent memory, there has been the state funeral of Sir Winston Churchill in 1965, an occasion when the world was taken into Wren's masterpiece, thanks to television.

St Paul's Cathedral (part two)

Wellington's huge memorial fills an entire arch on the north side of the nave.




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