Southwark Cathedral (part two)

Essential etiquette (part one)

Millennium Bridge (part three)


9 Eating and Drinking

Marble panel from the grave of Muhammad b. Fatik Ashmuli

Gilded mummy mask

Shepherd's Bush Market

North Wembley

St Paul's Cathedral (part one)

Waterloo suicides


Cameras - George Coles

Colossal marble foot

After the Clink – Prison Reform

News from our friends
Into the future
Elizabeth II HAS REIGNED in a world moving swiftly through political shifts, cultural change and technological advances. Traditional institutions of law, religion and politics have suffered loss of ...
Elizabeth II (1952 - )
Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born at 17 Bruton Street, London on 21 April 1926. A happy childhood was spent with her parents, the Duke and Duchess of York, and younger sister Margaret Rose. ...
Edward VIII and George VI (1936 - 1952)
Edward VIII (1936) Edward, Prince of Wales, eldest son of George V and Queen Mary, was known to the family as 'David'. Charming and informal, he was a popular prince, touring Britain and the empire, ...
George V (1910 - 1936)
Edward vii's eldest son Albert died at the age of 28, and so it was his second son, George, who followed him as king. George had learned the navy's traditions of duty and. Blue-eyed, blunt, and ...
House of Windsor
When Queen Victoria died in 1901, she left three generations of heirs. They, it was expected, would reign as monarchs of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. In fact, the name survived only 16 years. In ...
Most Popular
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Isabella BrantThis famous portrait drawing is of Rubens’ first wife, ...
The queen of vintage - Hilary ProctorThere's only one thing more fabulous than Hilary Pr...
Waterloo suicidesFor centuries people have been committing or attempting...
The Blues and RoyalsIn 1969 The Royal Horse Guards (The Blues) were amalgam...
London Oratory (Brompton Road)The Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome by ...
Clocks and watches - Martyn Stamp"1970s watches are very popular right now, whereas...
London bridge (part twelve)After the opening in 1836 of London Bridge station, the...
Guy's Hospital ChapelThe benefaction by which Thomas Guy founded the well-kn...
Southwark Bridge (part two)
 (голосов: 0)
The bridge was an amazing engineering achievement and was much praised. Robert Stephenson was particularly fulsome, calling it 'unrivalled as regards its colossal proportions, its architectural effects and the general simplicity and massive character of its details'. Financially, however, it was never a great success, and the shareholders made little, if any, interest on their investment. The bridge's approaches were inadequate, as it was not on a through route, its roadway was too steep for horse-drawn vehicles and, being privately built, it was a toll bridge and could not hope to compete with either London Bridge or Blackfriars Bridge, which were both free. Most of the toll collected came from pedestrians, and after the opening in 1831 of Rennie's new London Bridge, the toll revenue fell by nearly half, and continued to fall after that. As early as 1840 there were demands, from traders on both sides of the river, for the bridge to be made toll-free. Meanwhile, the congestion on the two neighbouring bridges continued to increase, and in 1849 the Bridge House Estates offered to buy the bridge. The bridge company asked for £300,000, less than half the cost of construction, but the City still felt that the price was too high and no agreement was reached. It should perhaps be noted that this figure had previously been offered for the bridge by the North Kent Railway, who wanted to use it to take a railway over the river at this point, a plan turned down by the City.

Negotiations continued and in 1864 the City agreed to rent the bridge for an experimental six-month period. On 8 November, in a joint ceremony, the committees of the bridge company and the Bridge House Estates opened the bridge toll-free. After the tolls were dropped the user numbers increased significantly, including ten times as many pedestrians, who no longer had to pay the penny toll.The experiment was continued for a further twelve months, and in May 1866 the City finally bought the bridge for £215,000, and the hated tollbooths were taken down.

It soon became clear that, at only 42 wide, the bridge could not cope with the increase in traffic, and many suggestions were put forward to improve the approaches to it and lessen the steepness of the incline, especially on the northern side. The London County Council wanted to run a tram service over the reconstructed bridge, though this was not popular with the City. In 1912 the decision was finally taken to build a completely new bridge on the same site. It was designed by Basil Mott, with architectural detail provided by Sir Ernest George, and work began on its construction in 1913.Temporary steel bridges were erected on either side of the old bridge for pedestrians to use during the work, and they were also used to carry the cranes and gantries used in the construction. The foundation stone was laid on 20 November 1914 by W. Hayward Pitman, chairman of the Bridge House Estates. Instead of the three spans of the old bridge, the new one has five steel spans, so that the piers are aligned with the adjacent bridges, making river navigation safer. It is 55 feet wide, with 35 feet of roadway and two footpaths 10 feet wide. So that the same abutments could be used, the footpaths were cantilevered out in order to accommodate the extra width.The new bridge has 3 feet less headway than the old bridge, which gives it shallower gradients.

The granite piers had been completed by the time war broke out, so work was allowed to continue until 1917, when it had to stop because of the shortage of labour and the difficulty of obtaining the steel. Work resumed after the war was over, but, because of the high cost of building materials, some of Sir Ernest George's architectural details were not completed.There were to be tall piers at each end of the bridge topped by emblematic figures, but these now stop at the parapet. On the river side of the curious little refuges there were to be carved heads of tritons, but these were never added, and there is a strange empty shelf on each one.

Посетители, находящиеся в группе Гости, не могут оставлять комментарии к данной публикации.